Lorenz Educational Press  

Stop Summer Learning Loss

by Julie 7. May 2015 15:28
No matter what you call summer learning loss (or summer slump or summer slide), it is a problem to pay attention to. But like most problems, this one has a solution.

Sliding Down and Climbing Back Up

If kids (or anyone for that matter) don’t use what they know, the knowledge can slide right out of their minds. According to the National Summer Learning Association, students can lose two months of math and reading skills over the summer, especially lower-income students who have less access to structured educational programs and camps.

When the new school year comes, students have to play catch up. Time and energy is spent repeating material instead of jumping into new lessons. In fact, a study in 2013 found that teachers spend 1–1.5 months reviewing material from the last year. Each year, students may find themselves falling further behind.

Staying at the Top

Unlike on the playground, working your way back up after sliding down in learning isn’t fun. It is hard work, like trying to climb a slippery slide with only socks on your feet. Prevent summer learning loss and help kids stay at the top with these tips.

1. Make trips educational.

A Trip to the ZooWhen playing in a park, stop to look around. Find out what types of plants and animals are there and where they might make their homes.
The museum is a great place to talk about emotional responses and history. Connect paintings to their art style and time periods.

At the zoo, do more than look at the animals. Discuss their behaviors, habitats, and similarities to humans or other animals.

If you go to a new state or country, talk to your child about the differences in the culture and environment.

2. Check out your local library.
Book Chat Flash Cards
Join a book club with your child, or take part in a summer reading challenge. If your library doesn’t have a reading challenge, or you can’t fit the local book club into your schedule, make your own at home! Read and talk about books that you already have on your bookshelves.

Many libraries have additional activities for children, teens, and adults as well. They could involve planting trees, learning about local history, and more!

3. Find math in everyday life or other activities.
Storytime Discoveries While cooking, play with measurements. Use teaspoons instead of tablespoons, and ask your child to find how many teaspoons you need.

At the grocery store, ask your child to find the best deal. Is the three-pack at $2.50 a better deal than the four-pack at $3.00?

Combine math with stories. If Cinderella has to be home by midnight, how much time does she have left at 10:45?

4. Take advantage of fun, educational activities and games.
Logic Puzzlers Flash CardsGive your child activity books with logic puzzles or math puzzles like Sudoku and cross sums. For younger kids, try color by numbers or similar activities.

Flash cards are also a great tool for educational games. Use them for trivia competitions or other games. To make a move or block one, players have to answer a question.

5. Share your ideas!

Leave a comment below to help others find ways to jump out of the slump, and discover new ways for yourself and child.

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Homeschooling | Summer Slump | Teaching Tips

The Homework Debate

by Patrick 17. April 2015 15:09

“Do students get too much homework?” is a fair question. For starters, students are social creatures who need time away from school. If too much school is brought home with them, there is certainly a risk of limiting or removing opportunities for students to engage with the world around them. There is also the problem of diminishing returns. A new study from researchers in Spain, looking mainly at science and math homework, has suggested that between 60-70 minutes of homework per night is the golden number. Any more shows too few benefits to be worth students’ time. Then there is student health to consider. Research from Stanford University cites increased stress, sleep deprivation and a number of other physical and psychological problems as being the result of too much homework.

But I have to wonder if the interest in quantity of homework comes at the expense of the more important issue of quality of homework. Here things get a little murky. It is difficult, if not impossible, to establish a baseline definition of “good” homework that all teachers can use. Different subjects, different groups of students and different teaching techniques require their own approaches to assigning homework. But regardless of the specifics, there always lies the risk of the dreaded “busywork” assignment that we all remember hating as students. In some cases, yes, using homework to drill information into students’ heads is unavoidable, particularly in math, the sciences and language. But I believe it is more often the case that the perception of a given assignment as “busywork” is not shared between students and teachers, and I think the problem is one of communication. Let me explain through an example.

Once, in a course I was teaching on European history, I gave my students a homework assignment that I thought they would find fun. We were studying the era of the printing press, and I asked them to go to Google image search, type in “early modern woodcut,” and bring in one image that they found interesting (check them out yourself; some of them are really out there). I had aspirations of my students finding obscure religious images or some of the more vulgar displays of drinking culture (this was a college course, after all). They would then come to class ready for a conversation about how a society depicts certain parts of its culture and how image works with words to create a whole greater than the sum of its parts. And when the due date arrived, from 60 students I received seven different pictures, all of which were from the first two rows of images that Google presented in the image search.

I can guarantee that not one of my students took more than six seconds to finish their assignment, and I can’t blame them. The problem was that I took for granted that they would know, or at least could infer, what I was trying to do with the homework. I didn’t give them enough direction, and I didn’t give the assignment purpose until after they finished it. What I thought was a clever way of piquing my students’ interest in a subject was, to them, blissfully easy busywork.

How do you decide what kinds of homework assignments to give to your students? And how do you decide how much to give them? Do you more often give them homework based on what they learned in class that day, or do you give them homework on subjects that will be brought up the next day? And how do you communicate to your students what you trying to accomplish with homework? Let us know in the comments section.


Shot in the Arm: The Vaccination Debate Intensifies

by Jonathan 9. March 2015 12:34
The necessity of vaccinating children has become a frequent topic of public debate. People on either side of the issue have flocked to support and defend their positions, often seeking to invalidate the opposing stance. Ultimately, however, both sides believe they’re doing what’s best for the health and safety of their children.

Recent events have thrown an even brighter spotlight on the topic. A measles outbreak in California is being attributed, in part, to large numbers of unvaccinated children.

The state has a significantly higher percentage of personal belief exemptions than the national average, including several “clusters”—areas that feature larger groups of kids that aren’t immunized.

The situation in California raises some difficult questions. Are unvaccinated children at greater risk to contract a serious illness? Are they a greater risk to other children? Should they be kept out of school because of these risks?

In the event of an outbreak like the current one, unvaccinated students do have an increased likelihood of becoming ill. They are also more likely to spread that illness to any other unvaccinated children. They even threaten kids who have been vaccinated—immunization isn’t necessarily 100-percent effective. These risks can’t be denied, but are they enough to justify schools requiring that students be vaccinated?

Some parents certainly think so.

A recent article on NPR tells the story of Rhett Krawitt, a first grader in Marin County, California. Rhett is in remission after battling leukemia. He isn’t immunized, but not because his parents don’t want him to be. His immune system isn’t yet strong enough to process the vaccine. Rhett has to rely on those around him, including the students at his school, for immunities. While there are no confirmed cases of measles in Marin County, it has a high rate of personal belief exemptions. Were the outbreak to reach Marin, unvaccinated children would pose a significant threat to Rhett, who would be at risk for greater complications from an illness like measles. His father has requested that Rhett’s school require all students be vaccinated, and the story has garnered national attention.

Which is more important: the health and safety of the public, or the personal beliefs of individuals? It’s a difficult question, one that people on either side of the vaccination issue must consider.


Teaching Identity in Schools

by Patrick 20. February 2015 16:38
Over the past few years ethnic studies courses have started gaining momentum in America’s primary schools. In December Los Angeles public high schools made ethnic courses a requirement for graduation starting in 2018-19 and San Francisco high schools will start offering them in 2015. In an effort to “build up the state’s Italian heritage” and to combat negative Italian stereotypes, New Jersey created a commission to provide teachers and schools with Italian-based history curricula (I admit this is a very specific ethnic studies initiative, but it counts nonetheless). The recognition that elementary, middle school, and high school students would benefit from increased focus on minority and marginalized voices throughout all subject is certainly a good thing, though the implementation of such new curricula has not been without some detractors.
When you deal with issues as race and ethnicity in a classroom setting, teachers have to walk a fine line. If an individual assignment, regardless how well-intentioned, leads students to feel uncomfortable – like this one which asked eighth-grade students to keep a slave journal for one week in order that they consider the emotional toll of slavery – teachers risk alienating their students. And then there is the current palaver surrounding ethnic studies in my home city of Tucson.

For about a year Tucson Unified School District’s ethnic studies courses have been under fire from the state. The classes under most scrutiny are not simple Mexican-American Studies courses, but ones with titles such as US History from a “Culturally Relevant Mexican American Perspective.” Among the various accusations made by the state, some of Tucson’s courses are said to be “designed primarily for pupils of a particular ethnic group” and/or “advocate ethnic solidarity instead of treating pupils as individuals.” Given only the titles of some of these classes one can see how the state reached their conclusions, and some of the assignments they cite as evidence are indeed quite inflammatory (possibly by design), but in some cases are also simply bad history questions. But the point here is not to debate the righteousness of Tucson’s or any other ethnic studies programs, but to look at one question inherently raised of such programs that I have yet to see addressed.

With ethnic studies looking like it might become a staple in high schools and middle schools across the country, it is worthwhile to consider the relationship between what is being taught in class and how students develop a sense of personal identity. More to the point, to what extent is it a teacher’s or a school’s responsibility to introduce students to the concept of their own ethnic identity and/or to foster that identity? Is it the teacher’s role to simply introduce students to their ethnic history/cultural history and let them work it out for themselves? Should students be encouraged see a certain history, literature, or music as “theirs,” and if so, how important is it to ensure that “theirs” does not equate to “more valuable” or “more worth knowing?” To take the Tucson example, is the risk of presenting homogenized and compartmentalized ethnic identities one that needs to be considered? That is to say, how careful must teachers be to communicate to their students that the Mexican-American, African-American, Korean-American or Italian-American perspective through which they teach their courses is not necessarily translatable to all people within that ethnicity? And how cautious must teachers be to not draw sharp, impermeable delineations between ethnic histories and cultures?

I think these are some exciting questions that need serious consideration, and their answers will inevitably depend on specific classrooms, students, and teachers. But we’d like to know what you think. Leave us a comment below with your thoughts and, if possible, your experiences.

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Classroom Topics | Diversity

More Funding and More Academics for Preschool

by Julie 28. January 2015 10:38
“Pre” means “before,” so using logic, “preschool” should mean “before school.” However, it doesn’t necessarily mean “before education.” Children’s brains develop rapidly in the first years of life. They are constantly learning about their surroundings and themselves, creating a great opportunity to start shaping their academic and social skills. This realization though, has led to questions, which have recently been topics of conversation thanks to President Obama’s Preschool for All initiative.

1. High-quality preschool programs can be expensive. How can we increase the number of lower-income children who have access to these programs?

When children’s parent(s) work and can’t be at home, they need to find a place where they feel their children will be well taken care of. Unfortunately, many high-quality preschool programs are too expensive for families. Many times, relatives and friends aren’t an option either. So, they need to either stay home and lose income or send their children to less expensive, lower-quality programs.

President Obama’s Preschool for All initiative would direct more government money towards low- to moderate-income children going to high-quality early learning programs. In addition, funding would be used to create more full-day programs, allowing parents to work full-time without worrying about finding a second place for their children to be in the afternoon.

In December 2014, the White House Summit on Early Education was held. Here, many organizations decided to direct more of their money into early learning. With their investments and some federal funding, a $1 billion package to provide funding for preschool programs was created. Companies like Disney are even using their money to make educational apps and books more accessible. This package is just the beginning.

2. Are parent’s choices about their children’s early years being taken away?

No! When Libby Doggett from the U.S. Department of Education spoke to Education Week, she made sure to state that programs are voluntary. The plan does not require preschool. It simply makes it more accessible and actually gives lower-income families more options. Parents are still welcome to keep their children at home with them if it is a possibility (though it may be beneficial to teach children some academic basics so they won’t fall behind). If not, parents can choose a preschool program for their children. The additional funding would give them the opportunity to focus on academics and childcare rather than affordability when selecting a program.

3. What is meant by academics? What will happen to play, creativity, and imagination?

Unfortunately, these questions are harder to answer at this time. According to a press release from The White House, states would need early learning standards, qualified teachers, and assessment systems in order to get funding. The standards ensure that children reach certain benchmarks and understand what they need to know to help them in their lives. The assessments ensure that the program is working and the funding isn’t going to waste. But from what we have seen in elementary school, with assessments looming, the creative play aspect seems to get left behind. The facts are taught as facts and reviewed with problems on paper instead. Will the same thing begin to happen in preschools across the country?

I think this is up to teachers. Creativity and play should not be lost while striving for academic success. We recently shared an article about the importance of play on Facebook. Play is a way to learn not only core subjects, but also social skills. For example, playing with building blocks teaches special recognition and creation through combining shapes. It can also teach children to share and work together.

Many skills, whether academic or social, can be taught through creative play:
  •         *hopscotch can teach counting while providing physical activity
  •         *Simon Says can teach listening skills
  •         *shopping (real or fake) can teach counting, reading, and food groups as children find the right items in the right quantities.
  •         *dramatic plays can teach teamwork, public speaking, and even history depending on the topic
These methods can also increase critical thinking skills. The children aren’t just repeating the facts; they are working with the ideas and learning how to apply them.
What do you think about the Preschool for All initiative? And how would you address academic standards in early learning environments? Leave a comment to let us know!

Hunger Games

by Patrick 23. December 2014 09:09
Thanksgiving has come and gone, the turkey-induced naps are over, and for many of us (myself included) it’s time to start eating healthier again… if only to make room for the next holiday’s overindulgence. We are not the only ones to have their diets reconsidered as of late. School lunches across the country have been put under the microscope in an attempt to improve student health. So how have they faired?

The latest initiative to improve the nutritional quality of school lunches – spearheaded by Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! Program – has met with mixed reviews. On the plus side, a report recently released by JAMA Pediatrics shows that lunches provided by schools have generally become healthier than lunches brought from home. They have fewer sugars, fats and processed foods than lunches brought from home, as well as more fruit and vegetable options. And though school lunches may still not meet the ideals of 

a truly health-focused meal,   as suggested by research from both Johns Hopkins and Baylor Universities, it’s a marked improvement over school lunches provided in past decades.

But improving lunch options are only half the battle, and it is clear that students across the country have not universally embraced the change. Many have taken to Twitter to post pictures of some truly head-scratching meals with the hashtag #ThanksMichelleObama. Though students are placing the blame on the wrong person – the first lady has no role in choosing which specific foods will go onto a lunch menu – the social media storm sheds light on the fact that, while school lunches may be healthier, they haven’t all distanced themselves from the stereotyped idea of the disgusting school lunch. As a result, while school-provided lunches may be healthier, students aren’t necessarily eating them. A recent study finds that students are most likely to throw away their fruits and vegetables, the very foods that they are meant to be eating more of. Thankfully, the study is quick to point out that students are not now throwing away a larger percentage of their entire meal than in the past, only that more of that percentage come from fruits and vegetables. So just because students have to pick a fruit or a vegetable, this does not mean that they pick one, immediately throw it away and go without one entire portion of their lunch.

So how do schools tackle these problems with their new lunches?  Something has to be done to erase the potential that unappetizing food, healthy though it may be, is leading students to not eat. Not only does this undermine the entire point of improving school lunches, but who among us can’t say that when our favorite lunch, or even just a particularly good lunch, was served, we had a better second half of our day? 

Obviously schools are still working to figure out how to implement a healthier menu that their students will like, and feedback from initial rollout stages will invariably lead to even more improvements. But the issue of funding lies central to the some of these problems. Healthier foods are more expensive than processed foods, and many schools do not have the money to serve vegetables with enough secondary ingredients to make them more appealing to picky students. Of course schools have opportunities to find creative ways to make tasty, healthy lunches more cheaply. But without increasing spending, on both ingredients and preparation, food quality can only improve so much. In the end, it will be up to schools and their communities to determine if and how much they are willing to spend to give their students the best possible lunches.

Tell us what you think. How should schools try to give students healthy, appetizing lunches? Has your school introduced new meals, and were they successful? Leave us a comment.


A Special Thanks to Teachers

by Julie 26. November 2014 16:20
We would like to extend a very special thank you to all the teachers out there. To do so, we asked the Lorenz Educational Press team and others at our parent company, The Lorenz Corporation, to complete the following sentences (they were also welcomed to include more details):

- I am thankful for teachers because...

- I am thankful for teachers who…

The responses included everything from just the sentence endings to paragraphs and stories. I was in charge of compiling the responses, and I was thrilled to see so many people excited for the opportunity to thank teachers. Some people included notes that showed the emotion behind the responses, such as the ones below:

  • - What a great idea!...You hit on a passion of mine, so if I’m too long or wordy, let me know. ~Patti (Don’t worry; it is all there.) 

  • - I am a huge cheerleader for teachers – so many made an enormous impact on my life over the years, and I feel that the profession is overlooked and severely underestimated in terms of what it really provides our culture (youth and otherwise). ~Sarah

  • - Come to think of it, I could literally write an entire blog post about why I love teachers. So I definitely have more examples if you need any! … I seriously love school and teachers and knowledge. ~Elisabeth (She sent a second response to say this.)

Before I share the responses with you, I want to encourage you to reach out to a teacher(s), even if you are one yourself, and say thank you (in person, by phone, mail, email, or social media even). They dedicate time before, during, and after school (even on their weekends and breaks) to their students and have a lasting impact because of it. The comments section is just waiting for you to add to our list of responses. Let teachers know that you care!

Our thanks:

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they are molding our future generations! I am thankful for teachers who don’t get thanked very often, but always go the extra mile anyway! ~Katie H.

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they influence and inspire young minds! ~Deb

  • -I am thankful for teachers who made me feel good about being smart when everyone else thought I was a nerd/geek. ~Ted

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they helped make me a better me. I am thankful for teachers who go the extra mile because they care – really care. ~ Pete

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they have the most important job in the world. They shape our future. There are more than a thousand “most valuable lessons” that I have taken away from all levels of education, but one of my favorites, which is often overlooked, is patience. I am thankful for the teachers that were patient with me. Patient when I didn’t get it yet. Patient when I thought I had it, but I didn’t. Patient when I thought I would never get it. Patient when I was in a bad mood. Patient when I was in an off-the-wall good mood. Patiently teaching me the value of patience and consideration. This lesson informs my interactions with friends, strangers, colleagues, students, and family in all parts of my life. I am thankful for that ongoing lesson, and the teachers who continue to teach it, every day. ~Kirsten

  • - I am thankful for teachers because what they write on the blackboard of life can never be erased. ~Mary

  • - I am thankful for teachers who have a genuine interest and investment in the intellectual and emotional well-being of their students. ~Mark

  • - I am thankful for the teachers who had more confidence in me than I had in myself. They never gave up on me, and that will always mean the world to me. ~Katie L.

  • - I’ll never forget the afternoon I spent with my physics professor discussing instantaneous velocity. He re-did the math, drew pictures, and tried explaining the concept several different ways, but 10 sheets of scrap paper later and I still wasn’t getting it. Finally, after about 40 minutes, it clicked. My professor’s eyes lit up and he threw his pen down, relieved. The relief suddenly gave way to panic, however, as he sprang out of his seat, grabbed his cane, and hobbled out the door yelling, “My class started 30 minutes ago, gotta run!”  This is why I love teachers. They love nothing more than a chance to paint a clearer picture of the world for their students, and they often go above and beyond to make that happen, working long hours (and sometimes losing track of time!). My professor put everything aside to help me work through that problem, and it is to dedicated people like him—people with a real passion for sharing knowledge with others—that I owe all my intellectual growth. ~Elisabeth

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they work tirelessly to inspire and mold the minds of the next generation. I am thankful for teachers who show their passion for teaching and learning in all that they do. ~Paul

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they care for children and help them to find their places in the world.  I am thankful for teachers who provide a safe place for the most vulnerable members of society. ~Erika

  • - I’m thankful for teachers because, coming from a family of several teachers, including my daughter, I have seen first-hand the dedication it takes to be a teacher. I have witnessed the long evenings and weekends doing lesson planning and preparation. I’m aware of the many purchases using your own money, (including providing hats and mittens to students who don’t have them). I know that many planning periods (if you are lucky enough to have one), are spent in meetings or writing notes and talking to parents. I know that you do all of this not for the money or accomplishment, but to ensure the success of your students. Thank you for all you do! ~Patti

  • - I’m thankful for teachers because they give kids more than just textbook knowledge. Some of my best teachers encouraged things like creativity, confidence, and perseverance that continue to serve me as an adult. I’m thankful for teachers who, despite having to endure many unpleasant situations and standards, selflessly dedicate their lives to helping students grow. ~Kate K.

  • - I’m thankful for teachers who see and cultivate their students’ individual talents. ~Jenny

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they help students learn more than just their subject. They encourage collaboration and individual achievement, teaching students how to work as a team or on their own. They help students learn a work ethic with the need to complete classwork. They even teach critical thinking skills that can be applied in all areas of life. (Just to mention a few.) I am thankful for teachers who challenge their students. I was more involved in classes where more than memorization was needed and I had to earn the grades rather than coast through. It made me learn the material on a deeper level so I could apply it in different situations. ~Julie

  • - I am thankful for teachers because several of those in my personal history have gone above and beyond the standardized curriculum, teaching their students HOW to learn and apply that knowledge in the real world. (I really do use Algebra every day, Mr. Allison!)  I am thankful for teachers who care; who take an interest in their students’ lives and can recognize when individual needs change despite the challenges of large classroom sizes and curriculum parameters. ~Sarah 

  • - I am thankful for teachers who are passionate about what they teach. Their energy is contagious, and it encourages a love of learning in the students. ~Kate M.

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they help students recognize their true potential and then give them the tools to harness it. I am thankful for teachers who treat each student like an opportunity to change the world. ~Jonathan

  • - I am thankful for teachers—and there were many of them—who continued to challenge me even when I thought I had too much to do. ~Steve

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they are dedicated to bringing the thirst of knowledge to our children, who will be our future leaders.  I am thankful for teachers who see the unique strengths of each of their students and provide them opportunities to learn and grow using those strengths. ~Barbara

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they are invested in our future.  I am thankful for teachers who take the time to make a difference in each student’s life. ~Josclynn

  • - I am thankful for teachers because they (1) are training the next leaders of our country; (2) dedicate their lives to enriching future generations; (3) touch the lives of so many people; (4) carry the burden for turning our children onto doing positive things with their lives; (5) carry the spark of inspiring and opening up minds to new thoughts and goals; (6) build better foundations; (7) are the role models that our children try to emulate; (8) make such a difference; (9) help students find their callings in life. ~Geoff


Celebrations | Holidays | Teacher Evaluation

Does Holding Students Back Hold Them Back?

by Patrick 7. November 2014 14:27
This week I chose a subject that I’ve been thinking about since I was asked to write for the LEP blog, and it begins with a little story. While a graduate student, I taught discussion sections – those classes held once a week in which a 300-student course breaks into 20-student sections  – for a couple of history classes. Every so often, around midterms, teaching assistants would grade exams together and inevitably, we would share some of the more creatively incorrect answers we received. I distinctly remember reading about a Russia run by the communist leader Zeppo Marx (how was it not Groucho?). It was all in good fun, we knew that most of the time students had the right ideas and just stumbled a bit on the execution, and we never mentioned any of it in front of our students. But I distinctly remember one day coming across the following answer to a question which, for our purposes, is irrelevant:

“Renaissance was from coming different to the older ways. They started away from wat there previous teachers told them and painting different things”…

This was a native English speaker who had absolutely no problem holding an intelligible conversation and had no diagnosed learning disability. But after reading the sentence I had to wonder how a student with such objectively poor writing skills had gotten into a university (a university which, mind you, requires an essay as part of their admission application). Something, somewhere, had gone wrong, I thought, and among us graduate students a conversation about holding students back a grade began.

How teachers and schools handle students who do not meet certain academic markers is not a new question. In the most extreme cases holding a student back a grade (or “retention”) has always been an option. Amid the constant efforts to improve the country’s education system, the past few years have seen the topic of retention pick up a bit of steam among researchers and politicians alike. There is much research to suggest that retaining students has limited short-term goals but also the possibility for causing long-term problems for students. On the one hand, arguments have been made that repetition of a grade simply gives a student with more of the same teaching and the same material that did not help them the first time around. At the same time, researchers suggest that the social dangers of retaining a student – less contact with their friends, the stigma of being held back, etc. – can be as detrimental, if not more, over the years. This has led many to justify “social promotion,” with the seeming hope that students will be able to catch up to their peers as they move through subsequent grades.

Instead of student retention, teachers and researchers have started implementing ways of catching students up to expectations before they start to fall behind. In-school tutoring and programs specifically designed for students having problems are the most commonly proposed. Key academic years – third, sixth and ninth grades, specifically – have been singled out for particular emphasis; student achievement at these three grade levels is relatively indicative of future progress. It has also been argued that these more proactive responses are less expensive for schools than student retention.

But as comparatively inexpensive as these measures might be, they do still constitute potential increases in financial burdens, and for some school systems it might be a burden that just cannot be met. And though there are private tutoring options available if a school can’t provide, these can be even more expensive for parents. And in some cases individual schools are not in charge of deciding whether to retain a student or not. Over a dozen states have passed laws mandating that students who do not meet certain reading comprehension criteria by the end of the third grade must be held back.

What, then, is to be done about students who fall behind? It’s usually at this point that I give my best judgment on the matter, but in this case I have no good answers. This seems to me a subject that is so dependent on the individual student that any blanket answer immediately appears implausible. Rather, I’d prefer to hear about your experiences. How have you as teachers worked with your school officials and parents to help students who aren’t keeping up with the material? Have you seen the effects of retention first-hand, and has the outcome been more positive or negative? Has your school started programs to help students avoid retention? Please let us know in the comments, and maybe we can get some discussion going.

And in case you were wondering, I sent my student to a writing tutor on campus to help her out. She didn’t go.

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Classroom Topics | Education

Is Pluto a planet again?

by Julie 23. October 2014 15:01

Eight years after Pluto was demoted, the debate still rages on. Everywhere, people are sticking up for the little guy. Now, word on the Internet has it that a new vote decided Pluto was a planet. So, is it?

The vote that occurred on September 18 was at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The results were in favor of Pluto as a planet, but this was not an official vote by the International Astronomical Union. Instead, it was a vote by three scientists and the audience members of the debate they had. Officially, Pluto remains a dwarf planet.

Why isn't Pluto a planet again?

When they threw Pluto out of “My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas,” the world was thrown for a loop. What did mother serve? But scientists had decided on an official definition for “planet,” and Pluto didn’t fit.

Planet: A celestial body that
  1. 1. orbits the Sun
  2. 2. is round or nearly round, and
  3. 3. has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit

Pluto doesn’t fit because it doesn’t clear its orbit. That little “and” in the definition means it must do all three to be a full-fledged planet.

What now?

A spacecraft (New Horizons) is heading to Pluto to get a closer look. In fact, New Horizons crossed Neptune’s orbit only a week after the debate. Who knows? Maybe its status will change again.

For now, Pluto will remain a dwarf planet. Its previous status shouldn’t be ignored though. Here at LEP, we think Pluto still deserves to be taught, even if it is “just a dwarf planet.” In fact, Pluto may be more important than it ever was before:

  • - Before Pluto was just the smallest of nine planets, way out there beyond our reach. Now, it is the most well-known dwarf planet/plutoid.
  • - Pluto was the center of debate and one of the driving factors in the creation of at least three new definitions:
    1. 1. Planet: A celestial body that orbits the Sun, is round or nearly round, and has cleared its neighborhood.
    2. 2. Dwarf planet: A celestial body similar to a small planet but that has not cleared its neighborhood.
    3. 3. Plutoid: An ice dwarf that is round and orbiting beyond Neptune.
  • - Pluto has been on both sides of planethood. It can be used as a clear example of the difference between a planet and a dwarf planet because you can teach why Pluto is different and why that isn’t a bad thing.

If Pluto regains its status, we will jump on board and welcome Pluto back as a planet. Until then, we encourage you to teach Pluto’s official status but include its controversial history. And please remember Pluto’s friends, the other dwarf planets: Ceres, Eris, Makemake, and Haumea.


What will you teach your students about Pluto? Is Pluto still a planet to you? Or have you accepted its new status?

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Preventing Bullying In the Digital Age

by Patrick 17. October 2014 14:32
In recent years the subject of bullying has increasingly become part of the wider public consciousness. Part of this is likely explained by bullying’s entrance into the internet and social media, where interactions that were once limited to those who witnessed them firsthand have become available to a far larger audience. And while bullying is probably as old as human civilization, cyberbullying is a new phenomenon, one which teachers, parents and students are still trying to figure out. 

October is National Bullying Prevention Month, and as such I’d like to take some time to take a look at some of the more commonly suggested means of combatting bullying and how these may or may not work to help stop cyberbullying.

The concept of “changing the social climate” in schools is being used as something of a catchall term for stopping bullying before it starts. It is to this social climate that many state anti-bullying laws refer when they declare schools must create a “safe learning environment” for students. Several organizations have developed anti-bullying curricula with the goal of clearly defining for students the negative consequences of bullying, both for themselves and for those they may bully. Most of these curricula, however, are geared toward K-5 classrooms (or thereabouts), presumably under the assumption that, one in their early teens, kids will understand, at least on some intellectual level, that bullying is wrong.

For students in middle school and high school, the “education” in anti-bullying seems to stop. This is not to say that schools no longer promote a safe learning environment or that they tolerate bullying to any lesser degree, but that the conversation about bullying seems to become one centered less on prevention and more on stopping it after the fact. This is indicative in much of the literature about bullying prevention that focuses on the victim. One look at the federal government’s Stop Bullying campaign website shows a much stronger lean toward dealing with bullying that already exists. Many organizations looking to end cyberbullying take the same approach, giving countless examples of things children should avoid doing on the internet to protect themselves from bullies (see some examples here, here, and here). There have also been a number of high-profile cases of school districts tackling the technology used to cyberbully, the most recent of which involved the banning of the Streetchat and Yik-Yak apps. 

With the advent of cyberbullying – a familiar yet strikingly different form of bullying – renewed emphasis on proactive education about bullying has become, I would argue, very important. First, cyberbullying is more likely to happen outside of school – where a teacher might otherwise be able to intervene – and away from the eyes of parent who might be able to do the same. Second, the anonymity and/or lack of face-to-face interaction allowed by the internet make cyberbullying much easier than “traditional” bullying; the cyberbully does not even need to be in the same city as their victim. Third, the internet provides instant gratification for a cyberbully. Imagine a scenario in which a teenager, sitting at home, becomes angry at one of their fellow students for something they had done earlier in the day. The internet provides an immediate retaliatory tool, whereas without it, the kid might be able to cool off and move past it before the next day of school. And lastly, bullying on the internet and social media has much greater potential to become permanent. Whereas name-calling on the playground has something of an ephemeral quality, an internet meme or a post on Facebook can go viral within an hour, even if it is only within one school’s population. Good luck removing that from the public consciousness.

All of this is to say that cyberbullying is so easy, so easily imitated, and so instantaneous that emphasis on prevention through conflict resolution runs the risk of being far too passive. The point is not to be alarmist; there is no indication that cyberbullying is about to replace or even occurs more frequently than “traditional” bullying. But with cyberbullying comes a set of problems, specifically for schools, that have yet to be addressed. Because cyberbullying and the conflict it creates can both begin and become heated all between the end of one school day and the beginning of the next, the classroom or the school hallways might become the first place where the two parties meet as bully and victim. This is to say nothing of the possibility that the bully might remain unknown to the victim for days or weeks. If the victim doesn’t know, how can a teacher or guidance counselor possibly mediate?

The question of whether all bullying can be prevented is a daunting one to say the least. Good strides are being made daily by students, teachers and school authorities across the country. To earn even more success, it might help to consider going back to the basics. 

Tell us what you think. Does your school have an anti-bullying policy? Has it seemed to work? How have you had to deal with bullying or cyberbullying in your classroom? Leave us a comment.


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